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English reclist (WIP)

This project is nowhere near completion, but is available here for you to provide feedback, or to understand what is to come. Additionally, feel free to use this as a learning resource. I'm sticking as faithfully to X-Sampa as possible with this. Content is subject to change at any point.

Vowel Pronunciation

For the sake of helping to explain complexity, there will be multiple tables below breaking the sets of vowels into sections of importance. The simpler lists may therefore not include the full set, but you can guarantee that the main set will be included in all lists.

Vowel set 1: Main vowels

This is the main set of vowels that are absolutely essential and required for English. There will be some discrepancies, especially regarding differences among dialects (for example, the cot-caught merger), and in some cases the vowel /A/ may be the same as /aI/ before the decay of the diphthong.

Alias in UTAU IPA Example word
A ɑ cot
Q ɒ caught
{ æ cat
V ʌ cut
E ɛ keg
I ɪ kit
i i key
U ʊ cook
u u coop
aU cow
aI time
eI tame
oU code
OI ɔɪ boy
@r əɹ her

Vowel set 2: Unstressed vowels

These vowels are almost always unstressed in English, but for full flexibility it's generally good practice to include them.

Alias in UTAU IPA Example word
@ ə comma
1 ɨ roses

Vowel set 3: R-Colored vowels

These are vowels that precede a voiced alveolar approximant (english R), and in some dialects can end up being pronounced differently when in such contexts. In addition, including the approximant in the vowel can increase smoothness and is often preferred in a lot of voicebanks and contexts. An example of this is the use of r-colored vowels in Vocaloid.

Alias in UTAU IPA Example word
Ar ɑɹ bar
Er ɛɹ care
Ir ɪɹ beer
Or ɔɹ core
Ur ʊɹ sure

Vowel set 4: Nasal vowels

Some vowels in English are nasalized in certain contexts, such as "hand", "hang" and "sing".

Alias in UTAU IPA Example word
{~ æ̃ can
I~ ɪ̃ sing
E~ ɛ̃ bang

Vowel set 5: Vowels with dark L

These are the main vowels that often are pronounced differently when preceding a dark L. As such, these vowels either: * Are not included other than when preceding a dark L (example case "coal"). * Are pronounced differently when preceding a dark L and thus would not sound natural without including it in the vowel (as such in "tool" as [tu][u 5-]) (example case "toon" vs "tool")

Alias in UTAU IPA Example word
O5 ɔɫ coal
@5 əɫ pull
u5 cool

Vowels set 6: Other vowels with dark L

These are other vowels that precede a dark L. This set will only be included in the more complex lists as they can often be redundant, but including them makes the voicebank easier to use in UTAU.

Alias in UTAU IPA Example word
Q5 ɒɫ tall
I5 ɪɫ till
E5 ɛɫ tell
{5 æɫ shall
V5 ʌɫ cull
a5 I'll
35 ɜ˞ɫ earl

List principles

List A

  • Vowel set 1 only
    • Inclusion of /ɔ/ vowel for words such as "core" and "cold"
  • [- CV] or [V C-] are not included
  • [- CV] should be constructed as [- C][CV]
  • Syllable onset clusers are written as [- C][C C][CV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C][C -]
  • Consonant transitions [C C] are only included for clusters or for ending /ɹ/
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List B

  • Vowel sets 1 and 2 are included
    • Inclusion of /ɔ/ vowel for words such as "core" and "cold"
  • ending /ɹ/ is differentiated from starting /ɹ/
    • recorded as a pseudo [V rt] cluster
    • works in place of [V r] replacing starting /ɹ/ in its contexts
    • can be utilized in place of starting /ɹ/ anyway
  • [- CV] should be constructed as [- C][CV]
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [- C][C C][CV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C][C -]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List C

  • Vowel sets 1 to 3 are included
    • Inclusion of /ɔ/ vowel for improved smoothness on words such as "cold"
  • Vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] should be constructed as [- C][CV]
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [- C][C C][CV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C][C -]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List D

  • Vowel sets 1 to 4 are included
    • Inclusion of /ɔ/ vowel for improved smoothness on words such as "cold"
  • Vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] should be constructed as [- C][CV]
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [- C][C C][CV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C][C -]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency
  • Vowel sets 1 to 4 are included
    • Inclusion of /ɔ/ vowel for improved smoothness on words such as "cold"
  • Vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] and [CV] are differentiated
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [- CC][CV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][CC -]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List F (Alternative to VCCV with CCs)

  • Vowel sets 1 to 4 are included
    • Inclusion of /ɔ/ vowel for improved smoothness on words such as "cold"
  • Vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] and [CV] are differentiated
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [- CC][CV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C-]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List G

  • Vowel sets 1 to 5 are included
  • Vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] should be constructed as [- C][CV]
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [CCV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C][C -] to reduce reclist size
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List H

  • Vowel sets 1 to 5 are included
  • Vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] should be constructed as [- C][CV]
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [CCV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C-]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]
  • This list is 5 mora to optimize efficiency

List I

  • All vowel sets 1 to 6 included
  • vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] and [CV] are differentiated
  • Syllable onset clusers are written as [CCV]
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V C][C C][C -]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]

List J

  • All vowel sets 1 to 6 included
  • vowels are recorded as VCV ([V V])
  • [- CV] and [CV] are differentiated
  • [V C] and [V C-] are differentiated
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [CCV]
  • [- CCV] and [CCV] are differentiated
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V CC-]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]

List K

  • All vowel sets 1 to 6 included
  • /h/, /j/, /w/ and /4/ consonants and vowels are recorded as VCV
  • [- CV] and [CV] are differentiated
  • [V C] and [V C-] are differentiated
  • Syllable onset clusters are written as [CCV]
  • [- CCV] and [CCV] are differentiated
  • Syllable coda clusters are written as [V CC-]
  • Consonant transitions are included as [C C]

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